Active Directory (AD) is the backbone of many organizations’ network infrastructure, enabling centralized user and resource management. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll walk through the process of setting up AD on a Windows Server. Whether you’re a seasoned sysadmin or just starting your journey in IT, this step-by-step tutorial will help you get your AD up and running.
Before we dive into the setup, make sure you have the following prerequisites in place:
- A Windows Server operating system installed.
- A static IP address for your server.
- Administrative access to the server.
Step 1: Install the Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) Role
- Server Manager:
- Launch “Server Manager.”
- Add Roles and Features:
- Click on “Manage” and then “Add Roles and Features.”
- Role-based or feature-based installation:
- Select “Role-based or feature-based installation.”
- Server Selection:
- Choose the server where you want to install AD DS.
- Select Roles:
- In the “Select roles” window, select “Active Directory Domain Services.”
Step 2: Configure AD DS
- Installation Overview:
- After selecting the role, you’ll see an overview. Click “Next” to proceed.
- Role Services:
- Review the information and click “Next.”
- Select Features:
- In the “Select features” section, you can leave it as default or choose additional features you need.
Step 3: Install AD DS
- Click “Install” to begin the installation process. Once the installation is complete, you’ll see a summary page.
Step 4: Promote the Server to a Domain Controller
- In “Server Manager,” you will now have an option to promote this server to a domain controller. Click on “Promote this server to a domain controller.”
Step 5: Active Directory Domain Services Configuration Wizard
- In this wizard, you’ll have several options:
- Add a new forest: If this is the first domain controller in a new domain.
- Specify a root domain name: Define your domain name (e.g., example.com).
- Domain Controller (DC) capabilities: Choose the capabilities you need.
- Directory Services Restore Mode password: Set this password for recovery purposes.
- Review the DNS options: If you don’t have an existing DNS infrastructure, let the wizard install it for you.
Step 6: Review and Install
- Review the settings and click “Next.”
- The wizard will run prerequisite checks. If everything is fine, click “Install.”
Step 7: Completion
After the installation is complete, your server will be a domain controller, and it will also act as a DNS server.
Step 8: Managing Active Directory
You can manage Active Directory using various tools:
- Active Directory Users and Computers: Create users, groups, and manage user accounts.
- Active Directory Sites and Services: Configure AD replication and site-related settings.
- Active Directory Domains and Trusts: Manage domain trusts and related configurations.
Step 9: Backup and Maintenance
Regularly back up your Active Directory database and system state data to ensure data recovery in case of failures.
Step 10: Security and Best Practices
Implement security best practices, like strong password policies, access controls, and regular security audits.
Step 11: Documentation
Document your AD setup, including group policies, organizational units, and user roles. This documentation will be invaluable for future maintenance and troubleshooting.
Setting up Active Directory is a critical task for any system administrator. This guide has taken you through each step of the process, from the initial installation to best practices for security and documentation. With Active Directory in place, you’re well on your way to effective user and resource management within your organization.
Feel free to explore the vast capabilities of Active Directory and how you can leverage PowerShell, Python, or other scripting languages to automate routine tasks and streamline your administrative work.
Now, go forth and master the art of Active Directory administration!